Once you learn to ride a bicycle, even if you don’t touch it for many years, you can still move forward steadily after stepping on the pedals. Some people say this is called "muscle memory", because the muscles remember the movements of riding a bicycle.
But the piano music I have played many times will become unfamiliar after a period of time without practice. Why can't my muscles remember how to play the piano? To
♬ ♬ ♬ ♬ ♬ ♬ ♬ ♬ ♬ ♬ ♬
Whether you learn to ride a bicycle or play the piano, you are learning movements. This is the foundation for us to eat, dress and take care of ourselves. It is also the only way to impress people all over the world by showing our movement skills (for example, in the World Cup finals, more than one billion people Looking at how 22 people chase and control a spherical object) .
After mastering an action, the memory of how to mobilize the muscles will be stored (for example, which muscle should use how much force at what time), so that similar actions can be repeated later, so some people call it "muscle memory".
In the process of learning movements, the morphology of nerve cells in the brain, cerebellum and other parts, as well as the signal transmission function between the cells, have permanent changes. The instructions issued by the nerves are changed, and the way the muscles contract is changed [2-6].
For example, the knowledge of the principle of cycling can be understood by listening to others, and you can continue to tell the next person. When learning to ride a bicycle, it’s impossible to learn only by listening to the explanation.
The process of "learning" new actions is divided into two types. Although each person has a different progress rate, the process is similar.
For example, when learning to ride a bicycle, whether you can practice it once or after a month of hard training, the final learning to maintain balance is often in an instant. The first minute is not stable, and the next minute suddenly "discovers" the trick. The process of learning to play a piano music is often from intermittent and unfamiliar to proficient and beautiful, and the accumulation of progress is continuous and slow .
Cycling mainly requires coordination of the whole body. Adjust the body's center of gravity according to the position of the car and the person at the time, adjust the direction with the hands, and control the speed with the legs, so that the bicycle will move forward without falling to one side.
Another type of demand focuses on speed and accuracy. For example, when playing the piano, you must precisely control which key to press, when and how hard you press it. Such movements are usually finer,
These two types of requirements are not all-or-nothing. Sometimes an action has two requirements. For example, riding a bicycle mainly relies on coordination to avoid falling, but in timed competitions or acrobatics, riding a bicycle additionally requires accurate speed and direction control. There are also many daily activities and sports, such as going up stairs, skipping rope, dancing and playing ball.
Although the first few times when learning to ride a bicycle, it seems to be the same as if there is no progress. In fact, the nerve cells are planning actions silently, and they will learn it "suddenly" when they accumulate to a certain extent. It is just that there is no way to predict when this "sudden" will happen. appear.
The speed of learning movements is fast or slow, and the time of memory retention after mastery also ranges from tens of minutes to decades.
Once you learn to ride a bicycle that requires coordination, even if you haven't touched the bicycle for decades, you can still keep your balance by stepping on the pedal again. and,
Playing the piano requires speed and accuracy, and the memory begins to disappear soon after stopping practice, and more and more forgetting over time. Among them, the greater the difference, the more intermittent, and the quicker the movements that require fine adjustments are forgotten. Just like when you are playing basketball, you rarely shoot continuously. Each time there is a difference in angle and distance, it is easy to throw the "three non-sticks" without practicing for a period of time. "[twenty four].
If the action contains two requirements, the forgetting speed of the two may be inconsistent. It's like riding a bike for many years, and you can still not fall when you get on the bike, but you may slow down and ride a zigzag when turning. A study once tested a ski-like action and found that subjects could still make similar actions after 10 years of interruption, but the amplitude of the action was reduced by 32%, and the frequency was also reduced by 20.4% .
Although many movements feel like they haven’t been learned after a period of time, don’t worry,
In addition to the characteristics of the action itself, the situation of accelerated forgetting also includes the small amount of practice in the initial learning, the unskilled mastery of the action, the long time to stop the practice, and the interference of other actions (such as playing badminton well, changing to tennis for a month, and then Back to the badminton court level will drop) [4, 7].
In short, regardless of whether you can see the progress immediately when learning movements, the nervous system will silently progress during the practice and store the memory. Even if you have not practiced for a long time, you can retrieve the previous movement memory, faster or slower. To